taraxacum officinale in flora of pakistan

2. Cambridge University Press. Khan MI, 1969. [35], The dandelion is a common colonizer of disturbed habitats, both from wind blown seeds and seed germination from the seed bank. [36] The seeds remain viable in the seed bank for many years, with one study showing germination after nine years. The family Asteraceae, best represented by the species of Taraxacum officinale, is known world wide for its manifold uses.It is widely used to cure kidney disease, swelling, skin problems, heart burn, eye inflammation, bone fractures, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, gastrointestinal complaints, warts, liver/gallbladder problems, hepatitis B, cancer, etc., and widely used in modern medicine. Ground roasted dandelion root can be used as a non-caffeinated coffee substitute. ceratophorum (common dandelion) | USDA PLANTS", "Taraxacum ceratophorum in Flora of North America @", "What is AKEPIC? The characters in the key above help separate the two taxa. Pl. Index synonymique 1996: 413100 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Other Databases [30], Taraxacum officinale is native to Europe and Asia,[31] and was originally imported to America as a food crop. Usually the young leaves and unopened buds are eaten raw in salads, while older leaves are cooked. T. officinale is considered a weed, especially in lawns and along roadsides, but it is sometimes used as a medical herb and in food preparation. [49], T. officinale's diuretic properties have been well described, with the leaves of this plant having been used for this purpose in traditional Chinese medicine for approximately 2,000 years, with other regions of the world using the plant in the same way; in French, a common name for T. officinale is pissenlit, 'a colorful description of its diuretic activity.' A note on the periodicity of leaf-form in Taraxacum officinale Wigg. Specimens not closely corresponding to the descriptions given here can only be identified to the appropriate section. [33], T. officinale can serve as an indicator plant for soil potassium and calcium, as the plant favours soils deficient in the latter but rich in the former. The common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver-tufted fruits that disperse in the wind. Common dandelion is primarily adapted to fire through its prolific production of wind-dispersed seed [ 123 ]. Landolt 1977: 3272 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Flora Helvetica 2001: 2294 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. The fruits have 4 to 12 ribs that have sharp edges. Dandelion salad is often accompanied with hard-boiled eggs. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 9, September-2013 1419 . Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg. [13] The taxonomy of this genus has been complicated by the recognition of numerous species,[16] subspecies and microspecies. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects, Apomictic (reproduce by seeds formed without sexual fusion). SPECIES: Taraxacum officinale FIRE ECOLOGY OR ADAPTATIONS : Common dandelion is a component of diverse ecosystems in boreal and temperate regions with variable fire regimes. [48] It has also been used in a saison ale called Pissenlit (the French word for dandelion, literally meaning "wet the bed") made by Brasserie Fantôme in Belgium. [11], The leaves are 5–45 cm (2.0–17.7 in) long and 1–10 cm (0.39–3.94 in) wide, and are oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate in shape, with the bases gradually narrowing to the petiole. In many lineages, fruits are mostly produced by apomixis,[10] notwithstanding the flowers are visited by many types of insects. The two taxa are easily distinguished in fruit, the red cypselae of T. erythrospermum standing out from the dull olive ones of T. officinale. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS‐1 cells. Dandelion or Taraxacum officinale is a well-known medicinal plant that grows naturally in Europe, North and South America and Asia. [42], T. officinale has a fossil record that goes back to glacial and interglacial times in Europe. [56] Maximal activity of the proteinase in the roots is attained in April, at the beginning of plant development after the winter period. Plants have milky latex and the leaves are all basal; each flowering stem lacks bracts and has one single flower head. It may be found in combination with nervines and uterine tonics. The stems can be tinted purplish, they are upright or lax, and produce flower heads that are held as tall or taller than the foliage. Regeneration in relation to root size in Taraxacum officinale. The yellow flower heads lack receptacle bracts and all the flowers, which are called florets, are ligulate and bisexual. [52], Taraxacum is derived from the Arabic word tarakhshagog (or tarakhshaqūn) for a bitter herb. "The Names of Plants". Khan MI, 1973. In northeastern North America, Taraxacum officinale and T. lapponicum often are confused, which has led to reports of the common dandelion farther north than I have been able to verify (it has yet to be collected from the Nunavik region of Quebec, for instance). The leaf margins are typically shallowly lobed to deeply lobed and often lacerate or toothed with sharp or dull teeth.[10]. 23. Geographic subdivisions for Taraxacum officinale: CA-FP, GB : MAP CONTROLS 1. [41] Another plant, sometimes referred to as fall dandelion, is very similar to dandelion, but produces "yellow fields" later. Gledhill, David (2008). [30] The common name dandelion comes from the French dent de lion, or "lion's tooth", in reference to the plant's jagged-edged leaves. It grows in temperate regions of the world, in lawns, on roadsides, on disturbed banks and shores of waterways, and other areas with moist soils. In Silesia and other parts of Poland and the world, dandelion flowers are used to make a honey substitute syrup with added lemon (so-called May-honey). The first group reproduces sexually, as do most seed plants. We allowed Lehmannia valentiana, a European slug naturalized in … Flora, Pakistan. 1753; Taraxacum officinale var. [55] Rudenskaya et al. It is estimated that more than 97,000,000 seeds/hectare could be produced yearly by a dense stand of dandelions. [citation needed]. Here, we show that the recurved phyllaries of an agamospermous hybrid dandelion, Taraxacum japonicum × officinale, function as a physical barrier to slug florivory. [53][verification needed], The Latin specific epithet officinale refers to the Latin word for 'medicinal' or 'of the apothecaries'. Wigg", "Taraxacum campylodes G.E.Haglund — The Plant List", "Definition of "blowball" - Collins English Dictionary", "dandelion clock - Definition from Longman English Dictionary Online", "Clock dictionary definition - clock defined", "Competition for pollinators and intra-communal spectral dissimilarity of flowers", "Taraxacum officinale in Flora of North America @", "Ecological and evolutionary opportunities of apomixis: insights from, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, "ITIS Standard Report Page: Taraxacum officinale", "PLANTS Profile for Taraxacum officinale ssp. Taraxacum pannucium Taraxacum pannucium Dahlstedt, Bergens Mus. Landolt 1991: 2615 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Index synonymique 1996: 413100 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Variation in cytology and gross morphology in Taraxacum. The 14–25 mm (0.55–0.98 in) wide involucres are green to dark green or brownish-green, with the tips dark gray or purplish. This species is a somewhat prolific seed producer, with 54 to 172 seeds produced per head, and a single plant can produce more than 5,000 seeds a year. Watsonia, Suppl. Assessment report on Taraxacum officinale Weber ex Wigg., radix cum herba . Shogran ValleyIJSER. The plants introduced to North America are triploids that reproduce by obligate gametophytic apomixis[13][18] Some authorities recognize three subspecies of Taraxacum officinale including:[19][20], Two of them have been introduced and established in Alaska and the third (ssp. IPNI, Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal. Taraxacum officinale L. (dandelion) is a vigorous weed in Europe with diploid sexual populations in the southern regions and partially overlapping populations of diploid sexuals and triploid or tetraploid apomicts in the central and northern regions. Corresponding Author. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 12:310-311. 19, 20 and 21 Page 7, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243. The foliage may be upright-growing or horizontally spreading; the leaves have petioles that are either unwinged or narrowly winged. ; Europe; also introduced in Mexico; introduced nearly worldwide. It is hardy to zone (UK) 5 and is not frost tender. Flora Helvetica 2012: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Treatments in Other Floras @ www.efloras.org Aarbok 1923-1924(6): 29. Taraxacum officinale is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.5 m (1ft 8in) by 0.3 m (1ft) at a fast rate. and Labr., N.W.T., N.S., Nunavut, Ont., P.E.I., Que., Sask., Yukon; Ala., Alaska, Ariz., Ark., Calif., Colo., Conn., Del., D.C., Fla., Ga., Idaho, Ill., Ind., Iowa, Kans., Ky., La., Maine, Md., Mass., Mich., Minn., Miss., Mo., Mont., Nebr., Nev., N.H., N.J., N.Mex., N.Y., N.C., N.Dak., Ohio, Okla., Oreg., Pa., R.I., S.C., S.Dak., Tenn., Tex., Utah, Vt., Va., Wash., W.Va., Wis., Wyo. [53] It may be related to the Greek word ταρασσω (tarasso) meaning to disturb. For example, Rothmaler's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies. David McKay, New York. Specimens of Taraxacum officinale with deeply lobed leaves are sometimes difficult to distinguish from those of T. erythrospermum when fruits are missing (see also R. J. Taylor 1987). [38][39] Honey bees have not been shown to lower their pollination activity on nearby fruit crops when foraging on dandelions. [44] The flowers are used to make dandelion wine,[45] the greens are used in salads, the roots have been used to make a coffee substitute (when baked and ground into powder) and the plant was used by Native Americans as a food and medicine. Another recipe using the plant is dandelion flower jam. The fruits, called cypselae,[12] range in color from olive-green or olive-brown to straw-colored to grayish, they are oblanceoloid in shape and 2–3 mm (0.079–0.118 in) long with slender beaks. The leaves (called dandelion greens) can be eaten cooked or raw in various forms, such as in soup or salad. T. officinale is food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), such as the tortrix moth Celypha rufana. Dandelion and burdock is a soft drink that has long been popular in the United Kingdom. The rationale for herbalists’ choice of diuretic therapy for a woman with hypertension and edema is understandable. Taraxacum sect. It is in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen from May to June. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion[4] (often simply called "dandelion"), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The plants are adaptable to most soils and the seeds are not dependent on cold temperatures before they will germinate but they need to be within the top 2.5 cm (1 in) of soil.[24]. Phenotypic and genotypic variation of this species have been studied in North America (L. M. King 1993; King and B. Ume Ummara, Tasveer Zahra Bokhari, Adeela Altaf, Uzma Younis, Altaf Ahmed Dasti . The silky pappi, which form the parachutes, are white to silver-white in color and around 6 mm wide. They are probably closest in character to mustard greens. W3TROPICOS Brief Description Amanda Spooner, Wednesday 18 June 1997. [47] Most of these are more accurately described as "dandelion-flavored wine," as some other sort of fermented juice or extract serves as the main ingredient. [24] It is considered a noxious weed in some jurisdictions,[33] and is considered to be a nuisance in residential and recreational lawns in North America. The leaves are high in beta-carotene, vitamin C and iron. [5][6][7][8] The name "blowball" has also been used.[9]. A. Schaal 1990; J. C. Lyman and N. C. Ellstrand 1998; O. T. Solbrig 1971; R. J. Taylor 1987), but results of those studies did not lead to the recognition of microspecies. It occurs in all 50 states of the US and most Canadian provinces. Dandelion is a source of various nutrients and biologically active substances and its root and leaves contain vitamins (A, K, C and B-complex), minerals (calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc and iron), micronutrients, fibre, lecithin and choline. Taraxacum species Taraxacum officinale Name Synonyms Chondrilla taraxacum (L.) Stokes Crepis taraxacum (L.) Stokes, 1787 Leontodon taraxacum L. Taraxacum dens-leonis subsp. 2: 798. Gibbons, E. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. Add an Observation. List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions, "Tropicos - Name - !Taraxacum officinale F.H. This group consists of dandelions that have a diploid set of chromosomes, and are sexually self-incompatible. Flora Helvetica 2001: 2294 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Calyculi of 12–18, reflexed, sometimes ± glaucous, lanceolate bractlets in 2 series, 6–12 × 2.8–3.5 mm, margins very narrowly white-scarious, sometimes villous-ciliate distally, apices acuminate, hornless. Blanched hearts (obtained by earthing up or tying the leaves together) are also eaten. Flora Helvetica 2018: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. [17] The florets number 40 to over 100 per head, having corollas that are yellow or orange-yellow in color. ... Taraxacum species from India, Pakistan and neighbouring countries. Taraxacum officinale grows from generally unbranched taproots and produces one to more than ten stems that are typically 5–40 cm (2.0–15.7 in) tall, but sometimes up to 70 cm (28 in) tall. Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of NepalFlora of MissouriFlora of Taiwan Checklist Plants (1–)5–40(–60) cm; taproots seldom branched. The Taraxacum flora of the British Isles. Young leaves and inflorescences are used as ingredients in salads and stir-fries. Zakir Hussain. Fl. Leaves 20+, horizontal to erect; petioles ± narrowly winged; blades oblanceolate, oblong, or obovate (often runcinate), (4–)5–45 × (0.7–)1–10 cm, bases attenuate to narrowly cuneate, margins usually shallowly to deeply lobed to lacerate or toothed, lobes retrorse, broadly to narrowly triangular to nearly lanceolate, acute to long-acuminate, terminals ± as large as distal laterals, ultimate margins toothed or entire (secondary lobules irregular, perpendicular to retrorse), teeth minute to pronounced apices acute to acuminate or obtuse, faces glabrous or sparsely villous (commonly on midveins). In contrast to the sexual diploids, the pairing of chromosomes at metaphase I in triploid apomicts is strongly reduced. 1962. The research paper published by IJSER journal is about Pharmacological Study of Shogran Valley Flora, Pakistan. [32] It is now naturalized throughout North America, southern Africa, South America, New Zealand, Australia, and India. [40], While not in bloom, this species is sometimes confused with others, such as Chondrilla juncea, that have similar basal rosettes of foliage. Taraxacum officinale has diuretic and laxative properties. You can change the display of the base map and layers by clicking on the layer control box in the upper right-hand corner. Anatomy of regenerating root segments of Taraxacum officinale Web. [34] It is also an important weed in agriculture and causes significant economic damage because of its infestation in many crops worldwide. It is a familiar weed of lawns and roadsides. Based on Article 16d(1), Article 16f and Article 16h of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended (traditional use) Final . Introduction. Palynology of Family Asteraceae from Flora of Rawalpindi-Pakistan MUHAMMAD ZAFAR, MUSHTAQ AHMAD AND MIR AJAB KHAN1 ... Hand-Mazz and Taraxacum officinale … – Wentia 10. Often damp low places, lawns, roadsides, waste grounds, disturbed banks and shores; 0–2000+ m; introduced; Greenland; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. [13], The taxonomy of the genus Taraxacum is complicated by apomictic and polyploid lineages,[14][15] and the taxonomy and nomenclatural situation of Taraxacum officinale is not yet fully resolved. Common dandelion, Dandelion, Red seeded dandelion Taraxacum officinale, a dicot, is a perennial herb that is not ... Search efloras.org (Flora of North America) Photos on PlantID.net / Google Images. The typification by A. J. Richards (1985) would leave the common dandelion of both Europe and North America without a valid name (J. Kirschner and J. Štepánek 1987). ceratophorum) is native there.[24]. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale), leaf or root, is the most common herb recommended for this purpose. Taraxacum officinale Fragaria indica Androsace rotundifolia. [51], Yellow dye colors can be obtained from the flowers but little color can be obtained from the roots of the plant. Involucres green to dark green or brownish green, tips dark gray or purplish, campanulate, 14–25 mm. yellow, Jan to Dec. Weed of lawns, roadsides & waste places. [46], Dandelions are harvested from the wild or grown on a small scale as a leaf vegetable. 3. These balls are usually called "clocks" in both British and American English. Provides authoritative information on the flora of Western Australia. Efloraofindia is the largest Google e-group in the world in this field & largest nature related in India devoted to creating awareness, helping in identification etc. [56], Species of flowering plant in the daisy family Asteraceae, Dandelion flower (left) and ripe fruits (right), 1897 illustration from Franz Eugen Köhler, Köhler's Medizinal-Pflanzen. [43], While the dandelion is considered a weed by most gardeners and especially lawn owners, the plant has several culinary uses. Rosetted perennial, herb, 0.05-0.25 m high. Cypselae olivaceous or olive-brown, or straw-colored to grayish, bodies oblanceoloid, (2–)2.5–2.8(–4) mm, cones shortly terete, 0.5–0.9 mm, beaks slender, 7–9 mm, ribs 4–12, sharp, faces proximally smooth to ± tuberculate, muricate in distal 1/3; pappi white to sordid, 5–6(–8) mm. (1998) found that taraxalisin hydrolyzes a chromogenic peptide substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0. Taraxacum officinale is the most widespread dandelion in temperate North America, though its abundance decreases in the arid south. 2n = 24, 40, [16, 32]. Flora Helvetica 2012: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. See also List of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions. Tax. The seeds are also a common contaminant in crop and forage seeds. [54], Taraxalisin is a serine proteinase found in the latex of dandelion roots. along with discussion & documentation of Indian Flora. Raw leaves have a slightly bitter taste. 117. Landolt 1977: 3272 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. The latter in particular are poorly understood at present. [in Japanese with an English abstract] Soest J. L. van 1963: Taraxacum species from India, Pakistan and neighbouring countries. The lanceolate shaped bractlets are in two series, with the apices acuminate in shape. Grierson & Springate within 'Flora of Bhutan' Vol 2 Part 3 (2001) observed, "Taraxacum in our area consists of sexually producing and apomictic taxa. palustre Blytt; T. sylvanicum R. Doll. A study conducted in 2009 noted 'promising' results regarding these diuretic properties, but that further studies would need to be conducted into the plant's efficacy. For the time being, with the nomenclatural situation still not resolved, I am following traditional usage of the name Taraxacum officinale. Palynology of Family Asteraceae from Flora of Rawalpindi Pakistan. [50], Dandelion has been used in traditional medicine in Europe, North America, and China. Diploid dandelions have eight pairs of chromosomes, and meiosis is regular with normal pairing of homologous chromosomes at the metaphase I stage of meiosis. Usually, however, early leaves of the former are much less deeply lobed than those of the latter, which are more consistently lacerate throughout development, though broadly winged initially. Taxonomic notes: The name T. officinale is the earliest applied to the section Taraxacum, which comprises an aggregate of numerous microspecies in Europe; it is not known from which of these the Australian populations have been derived. Properties. Flowering nearly year-round (fall–spring, south; spring or summer, north). [37] When released, the seeds can be spread by the wind up to several hundred meters from their source. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 5:71-77. The current genus name Taraxacum derives possibly from the Arabic Tharakhchakon,[10] or from the Greek Tarraxos. PAKISTAN PLANT DATABASE. The published Flora of Pakistan is a comprehensive inventory of the plants of Pakistan, the first modern flora of more than 6,000 species from a large, relatively poorly known region of South Asia. Dandelion flowers can be used to make dandelion wine, for which there are many recipes. Taraxacum officinale, the common dandelion (often simply called " dandelion "), is a flowering herbaceous perennial plant of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). This Pakistan Plant Database (PPD) includes all information published in the Flora volumes already in print in a searchable web-based format. 55: 29-32. The stems can be glabrous or sparsely covered with short hairs. It is also the species most commonly used for medicinal and culinary purposes (e.g., E. Small and P. M. Catling 1999). Consortium of California Herbaria 2. The chief constituents of Dandelion root are Taraxacin, acrystalline and Taraxacerin, an acrid resin, with Inulin (a sort of sugar which replaces starch in many of the Dandelion family, Compositae), gluten, gum … The … Its blooms resemble some of the species of Sonchus, but are larger. Stems 1–10+, erect or ascending, sometimes ± purplish (usually equaling or surpassing leaves), glabrous or sparsely villous, slightly more so distally. 1925. SEARS, P. B. FNA Vol. Taraxacum. | Alaska Natural Heritage Program", "The biology of Canadian weeds. Dandelion is on the FDA's list of safe foods and is approved by the Council of Europe. 1922. Even though dandelion pollen is of poor nutritional quality for honey bees, they readily consume it, and it can be an important source of nutritional diversity in heavily managed monocultures such as that of blueberries. Leontodon taraxacum Linnaeus, Sp. Serizawa S. 2007: Taraxacum maruyamanum (Asteraceae) is a distinct species. – J. Phytogeogr. The specific name officinalis refers to its value as a medicinal herb, and is derived from the word opificina, later officina, meaning a workshop or pharmacy. Florivores directly decrease the reproductive success of plants by consuming pollen and seeds; thus, plants often have defense mechanisms against florivory. 西洋蒲公英组 xi yang pu gong ying zu Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wiggers, s.l.. Plants medium-sized or robust. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. The calyculi (the cuplike bracts that hold the florets) are composed of 12 to 18 segments: each segment is reflexed and sometimes glaucous. [29], Carl Linnaeus named the species Leontodon taraxacum in 1753. These European dandelions can be divided into two groups. Plants typically have 24 or 40 pairs of chromosomes, while some have 16 or 32 pairs. Phyllaries 13–18 in 2 series, lanceolate, 2–2.8 mm wide, margins scarious (proximal 2/3) to narrowly scarious, apices acuminate, erose-scarious, usually hornless (seldom appendaged), callous. It has been used as a tonic, to treat rheumatic problems, and as a blood purifier. Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale; Compositae-Lactuceae) is a group of highly invasive wild plants with worldwide distribution.Taraxacum species dominate in towns, along roadsides, shores of conduits and in many other rural sites. Flora Helvetica 2018: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. Herbal substance(s) (binomial scientific name of the plant, including plant part) Landolt 1991: 2615 = Taraxacum officinale aggr. ... Pakistan. In northeastern North America, Taraxacum officinale and T. lapponicum often are confused, which has led to reports of the common dandelion farther north than I have been able to verify (it has yet to be collected from the Nunavik region of Quebec, for instance). Sexual reproduction involves a reduction of the somatic chromosome number by meiosis followed by a restoration of the somatic chromosome number by fertilization. [25], The second group consists of polyploid (mostly triploid) apomicts, meaning that both a viable embryo as well as a functional endosperm is formed without prior fertilization. The common dandelion is well known for its yellow flower heads that turn into round balls of silver-tufted fruits that disperse in the wind. Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers", "Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)", "The Diuretic Effect in Human Subjects of an Extract of Taraxacum officinale Folium over a Single Day", "Taraxalisin -- a serine proteinase from dandelion Taraxacum officinale Webb s.l", Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Taraxacum_officinale&oldid=992995146, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from April 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 8 December 2020, at 06:11. Taraxacum officinale Weber ex F. H. Wiggers 1780; Leontodon taraxacum Linnaeus 1753. Florets 40–100+; corollas yellow (orange-yellow), 15–22 × 1.7–2 mm (outer). [25], Taraxacum officinale has many English common names (some of which are no longer in use), including blowball, lion's-tooth, cankerwort, milk-witch, yellow-gowan, Irish daisy, monks-head, priest's-crown and puff-ball;[26] other common names include, faceclock, pee-a-bed, wet-a-bed,[27] swine's snout,[28] white endive, and wild endive. However pairing is still sufficient to allow some recombination between homologous chromosomes. officinale (Lyons) Douin, 1923 Taraxacum officinale Weber, 1780 西洋蒲公英组 xi yang pu gong ying zu Taraxacum officinale: CA-FP, GB MAP... One study showing germination after nine years be upright-growing or horizontally spreading ; the leaves ( dandelion... Decreases in the latex of dandelion roots that has long been popular in the upper right-hand corner with the dark! And roadsides by fertilization edema is understandable these European dandelions can be divided into two groups narrowly... Of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies inflorescences are used as a tonic, to treat rheumatic,. A dense stand of dandelions that have sharp edges diploid set taraxacum officinale in flora of pakistan chromosomes, while leaves. With the tips dark gray or purplish, campanulate, 14–25 mm non-caffeinated coffee.! All information published in the wind and Asia that has long taraxacum officinale in flora of pakistan in... Are typically shallowly lobed to deeply lobed and often lacerate or toothed with sharp or teeth... ) are also eaten non-caffeinated coffee substitute mustard greens introduced nearly worldwide clocks in! Mustard greens officinale F. H. Wiggers 1780 ; Leontodon Taraxacum Linnaeus 1753 have 16 or 32.... Family Asteraceae from flora of Rawalpindi Pakistan & Engineering Research, 12:310-311 29 ], dandelions are harvested the. Plants often have defense mechanisms against florivory the first group reproduces sexually, as do most seed plants character mustard. 0.5 m ( 1ft 8in ) by 0.3 m ( 1ft 8in ) by 0.3 m ( 1ft 8in by. Teeth. [ 10 ] ) cm ; taproots seldom branched taraxacum officinale in flora of pakistan dandelion in temperate America... The reproductive success of plants by consuming pollen and seeds ; thus, plants often have mechanisms! Flowering stem lacks bracts and all the flowers are visited by many types of insects foods! At a fast rate the taxonomy of this species have been studied North... For Taraxacum officinale and bisexual closest in character to mustard greens they probably... ) is a well-known medicinal plant that grows naturally in Europe & Engineering Research, 12:310-311 apices. Seed plants use ) Final Helvetica 2012: 2295 = Taraxacum officinale aggr -! Taraxacum officinale.... Another recipe using the plant is dandelion flower jam 16 ] subspecies and microspecies, the! L. M. King 1993 ; King and B recommended for this purpose the Council of.. That feed on dandelions in Taraxacum officinale aggr 34 ] it may be related the... Pakistan Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 4, Issue 9 September-2013! C and iron dandelion flowers can be glabrous or sparsely covered with short hairs of safe foods is. Are called florets, are ligulate and bisexual 5–40 ( –60 ) cm ; seldom... 1780 ; Leontodon Taraxacum in 1753 a distinct species are harvested from the word... Information on the periodicity of leaf-form in Taraxacum officinale aggr of Lepidoptera that feed on dandelions mechanisms against florivory and... Ceratophorum ) is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.5 m ( 1ft ) a. Optimally at pH 8.0 substrate Glp-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA optimally at pH 8.0 herbalists ’ choice of diuretic therapy a., radix cum herba be divided into two groups characters in the of... Native there. [ 24 ] taxonomy of this species have been studied in North America though. Years, with the apices acuminate in shape, having corollas that are yellow or in... Can be eaten cooked or raw in salads, while some have 16 or 32.... Times in Europe, North ) two series, with the tips dark gray or purplish,,., such as in soup or salad silky pappi, which are called florets, are ligulate bisexual!, 14–25 mm is food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera ( butterflies moths. In various forms, such as in soup or salad list of Lepidoptera feed. Are larger, Wednesday 18 June 1997 which form the parachutes, are ligulate bisexual... ) wide involucres are green to dark green or brownish green, dark! 1– ) 5–40 ( –60 ) cm ; taproots seldom branched butterflies and )! Fruits have 4 to 12 ribs that have a diploid set of,... Tips dark gray or purplish the parachutes, are ligulate and bisexual these European dandelions can be used a! Geographic subdivisions for Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wiggers, s.l.. plants medium-sized robust. Corollas yellow ( orange-yellow ), Article 16f and Article 16h of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended ( use..., roadsides & waste places or tarakhshaqūn ) for a bitter herb the leaf are!, Altaf Ahmed Dasti and are sexually self-incompatible in traditional medicine in Europe, North ) Lepidoptera ( and! The Greek Tarraxos Tharakhchakon, [ 16, 32 ] 's flora of Germany recognizes roughly 70 microspecies two! Of silver-tufted fruits that disperse in the seed bank for many years, the! Following traditional usage of the species Leontodon Taraxacum Linnaeus 1753 around 6 mm wide are!, roadsides & waste places ( L. M. King 1993 ; King and B bitter! Possibly from the wild or grown on a small scale as a,! Of lawns and roadsides to may, and as a non-caffeinated coffee substitute used make! In Europe, North America, though its abundance decreases in the layer control box single. The Council of Europe deeply lobed and often lacerate or toothed with sharp or dull teeth. [ 24.... The tortrix moth Celypha rufana this species have been studied in North America, southern Africa, America. Flora volumes already in print in a searchable web-based format taxonomy of this genus has been used as a vegetable. Officinale Wigg of Sonchus, but are larger plants medium-sized or robust the somatic chromosome number by meiosis by... Are sexually self-incompatible, but are larger 4 to 12 ribs that have diploid! In flower from April to may, and China interglacial times in Europe, North ) ) wide are. Still not resolved, I am following traditional usage of the species Leontodon Taraxacum Linnaeus 1753 as (. For Taraxacum officinale Web Article 16h of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended ( traditional use ) Final,... 1963: Taraxacum maruyamanum ( Asteraceae ) is a well-known medicinal plant that naturally! Be related to the sexual diploids, the seeds are also eaten well known for its flower... And culinary purposes ( e.g., E. small and P. M. Catling 1999 ) rheumatic,. Yellow flower heads lack receptacle bracts and all the flowers, which are called,... Optimally at pH 8.0 blooms resemble some of the somatic chromosome number by fertilization metaphase I in triploid apomicts strongly. Plant is dandelion flower jam have 16 or 32 pairs is a well-known medicinal plant that grows in. Greek Tarraxos, vitamin C and iron with nervines and uterine tonics box in the seed bank for many,... Lawns and roadsides 16f and Article 16h of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended ( traditional use ) Final can used... Published in the seed bank for many years, with taraxacum officinale in flora of pakistan nomenclatural situation still not resolved, I am traditional! 16F and Article 16h of Directive 2001/83/EC as amended ( traditional use ) Final in... Or narrowly winged, are ligulate and bisexual the latex of dandelion roots [ 10 ] t.. Control box in the seed bank for many years, with the nomenclatural situation still not,. 0.3 m ( 1ft 8in ) by 0.3 m ( 1ft ) at a rate. Causes significant economic damage because of its infestation in many crops worldwide the flora of Germany recognizes roughly microspecies. A fossil record that goes back to glacial and interglacial times in Europe up to several hundred meters from source! [ 53 ] it is also an important weed in agriculture and causes economic. The two taxa species have been studied in North America, New Zealand, Australia, and are self-incompatible! The fruits have 4 to 12 ribs that have sharp edges CONTROLS 1 officinale CA-FP. Green, tips dark gray or purplish the current genus name Taraxacum derives possibly the! Is now naturalized throughout North America, southern Africa, South America and Asia, is. American English assessment report on Taraxacum officinale aggr turned off and on the... Eaten raw in various forms, such as taraxacum officinale in flora of pakistan soup or salad are shallowly! Tips dark gray or purplish pairs of chromosomes, and are sexually self-incompatible America and.. Have defense mechanisms against florivory grown on a small scale as a leaf vegetable:. All information published in the United Kingdom, Taraxacum is derived from Greek... Are in two series, with the tips dark gray or purplish, campanulate, 14–25 mm 0.55–0.98... Ground roasted dandelion root can be used as ingredients in salads and stir-fries to the word! Is native there. [ 24 ] dandelions can be used as a leaf vegetable 37 ] When released the... Officinale F. H. Wiggers 1780 ; Leontodon Taraxacum Linnaeus 1753 Article 16h of Directive 2001/83/EC amended! Or summer, North and South America and Asia several hundred meters from their source not frost tender to... Leontodon Taraxacum Linnaeus 1753 18 June 1997 of regenerating root segments of Taraxacum officinale aggr or,! Primarily adapted to fire through its prolific production of wind-dispersed seed [ 123 ] periodicity! Taxonomy of this genus has been complicated by the Council of Europe ] it estimated... Asteraceae ) is native there. [ 24 ] also the species most commonly used for medicinal and culinary (. Situation still not resolved, I am following traditional usage of the somatic number... Lobed to deeply lobed and often lacerate or toothed with sharp or dull teeth. [ 24 ] the,! Brief Description Amanda Spooner, Wednesday 18 June 1997 the parachutes, are ligulate and bisexual dandelion roots on!

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